Monday, April 23, 2018
I never understood the tendency of some model kit companies to name their company in English but everything else is in their own language in this case Dutch.
This kit being an older kit was more difficult than one one might come to expect. First the instructions were all in Dutch. Second the parts were only printed onto the wood and not lazer or stamp cut. So the parts had to be cut out by hand. Anyway it wasn't easy.
The lemsteraak is a traditional Frisian sailing ship. The design comes from Lemmer , developed from the Frisian fishery (suitable for the Frisian inland waters).
The first lemsteraak of which drawings are, was built in 1876 by the shipyard De Boer from Lemmer. Originally the barge was intended as a fishing vessel on the Wadden Sea and the Zuiderzee , in particular the part between Friesland and the head of North Holland. They mainly fished for herring, although the actual fishing with herring was done. The barge was used for transport and storage of the fish, provided by a (covered) bun on the front deck, which could be up to 2.5 meters in size. For its speed, the barge was also used for the transport of other (living) fish, mussel seed to Zeeland and mussels from Zeeland to Belgium (up to Brussels). They were also used early in the 19th century to transport live eel to London , where the barges even had their own berth.
Soon the well-to-do bourgeoisie found out that the lemsteraak was perfectly suitable as a pleasure yacht. The bun disappeared and in its place came a cabin placed behind the mast, often with decorative carvings and stained-glass windows. As a yacht, the barge was sailed with three paid powers. In this time, at competitions, the crew can be up to 10 men to be able to maneuver quickly and change sails. In the first instance, these were converted fishing boats, but in 1907 the first lemsteraak was built at De Boer Shipyard, which was built as a yacht: the Johanna , who is still sailing in a reasonably original state like the Orion .
In the run up to the 21st century, racing sailing with lemsteraken has received a renewed interest. The existing ships were improved and new ships got more profitable hulls and rigging. Since 2002, the VA class organization has been set up specifically for racing sailing with lemster tasks. The class is recognized by the Watersportverbond. Every race ship has a TVF (time settlement factor). This TVF was completely renewed in 2010 by order of the VA class organization. TU Delft was involved in this. The purpose of the TVF is to give each ship an equal chance of victory. Partly due to the competition sailors, the yacht designers do a lot of research using wind tunnels and towing tanks . The predictive software also plays an important role in the new development. Since 2000, the lemsteraken with the lay-out of the fisherman in the competition field are again in full view and even have the upper hand. The current competition ships are on average longer than those of the last century (now most of the ships are 15 - 17 meters long) The large cockpit of the fisherman offers a competition crew (average 10 people strong) a lot of space and at least as important, the center of gravity is lower than that of the hunting tasks, which increases the sail-carrying capacity.
The curve with the high head indicates that the barge did not shy away from the rough and fast flowing water of the Wadden Sea and surroundings. The barge is built in an egg-shaped round with the tip to the rear. The plane is slightly curved and the deepest point is found, as is the largest width, near the mast. From the beginning of the 20th century, the hull of the barges was built in iron / steel, the first decades were riveted, later welded. The round line both in the longitudinal and the width direction not only ensure the good sailing characteristics but are also responsible for the high price. It takes time, effort and craftsmanship to give a steel plate two curvatures. As a result, a lemesteraak is considerably more expensive than, for example, a chimney .
The mast originally had the same length as the ship. Meanwhile, the barges have convinced a considerably higher mast. The rudder is equipped with a click , on yachts often replaced by a gilded rudder lion or other artistic carvings. The ship is equipped with narrow long sea seams .
The swords are often adjustable in the longitudinal direction of the ship. The lateral point can therefore be moved. The wind / lee effect can thus be influenced. A characteristic feature of most of the new racing boats is that the continuous keel is missing and there has been carried out with hedges against the extension of the stern and stern to the underwater ship. Due to the lack of the continuous keel and the desired stiffness of the hull, the construction of rafters, girders and the like is heavier.
The lemsteraak is rigged with a large mainsail on a curved fork with loose trousers, that is to say, it is not attached to the boom at all . As a predecessor one sails a fairly large jib and javelin and sometimes a halfwinder , called in the world of round and flat-bottomed hunters or mizzen . 
The position and length of the mast largely determine the ratios of jib and mainsail. Nowadays the mast stands at 40 - 45% of the ship's length and the length of the mast is approximately 1.5 times the length of the ship. For racing vessels, the sail width at the level of the fork may not exceed 48% of the length of the bottom. In that sense, the mainsails of modern ships have become narrower. At the same time, the lifting has been lengthened, as a result of which the mainsail has received a higher yield. The big breeding is actually a genoa and here too the longer lifting has changed the height: width ratio, resulting in a higher yield.
The halfwinder or hunter is fed flying at a single fall. The neck should be briefly fed on the jib tree. The halfwinder is not passed along a stag but completely free. Depending on the cut of the sail it is used at about 80 to 140 degrees to the wind or 110 to 180 degrees. The sail can not be used in the wind. In general, the halfwinder up to and including Bft4 is well-paid.
The mizzen, also called hunter, breadwinner, is also fed from half-wind quarters. A tree, with the function of the boom, is attached to the back house. The lap is brought to the cockpit via a block on the rudder.
Water sails are also used for cross-country courses. Under the boom and also under the jib.
De Groene Draeck is a lemsteraak that was built from 1956 to 1957 in the shipbuilding hall of De Amsterdamsche Scheepswerf G. de Vries Lentsch Jr. in Amsterdam . The launch was on June 4, 1957, the transfer on June 15, 1957. The ship then has a ladies cabin for four people, a men's cabin for two persons and two spare berths in the saloon. The front deck is intended for the permanent crew of the ship and has a separate entrance to the deck.
During construction the ship is equipped with a water-cooled Perkins 6-cylinder diesel engine of 65 hp at 2000 rpm. In addition, an air-cooled Lister diesel, which drives a separate alternator for the power supply, in addition to the propeller shaft generator . A bronze bilge pump can also be connected there, which can also be used for deck cleaning. A large battery set has also been installed in the engine room. The ship is then provided with a carbon dioxide fire extinguishing installation, which appeals at 90 °. In addition to the three underwater line pumping toilets (a private toilet for the crew) there are five washbasins, which then all went to the outside water.
To save space in the cockpit, the ship does not have a tiller , but a steering wheel . The wood carving (more sculpture) around the cockpit is carved in relief from the teak by C. Bischoff . At the helm is a winged dragon , designed by Katinka van Rood , teacher sculpture of the princess. In addition to the stick anchor, there are also a ploughshare anchor and two cat anchors on board. The navigation lights could also burn petroleum at the time, in case the power on board would drop out.
The idea of offering the princess a ship was elaborated in a committee consisting of representatives of companies who practiced seafaring, coastal shipping, navigation, towage, inland shipping, fishing, etc., and representatives of the Royal Netherlands Navy , rescue, water sports. , in addition to people who were interested in water sports, but also mayors who at that time held major water sports centers. De Groene Draeck was presented to HKH Princess Beatrix by this Comité Varend Nederland on the occasion of her 18th birthday in 1956. The sailing number is VA 18.
At the delivery in Muiden a fleet inspection of an estimated 500 yachts and boats was held, in a row in the harbor and the access channel.
At present the property falls under the Crown Goods Foundation of the House Oranje-Nassau which aims to promote that descendants of HM Queen Wilhelmina in the exercise of the Royal dignity have access to the necessary or desired movable physical matters. Upon liquidation of the foundation, the cases are transferred to the descendants who, according to the law, are their heirs. Director of the foundation is the Bearer of the Crown. The transfer of ownership appears to have happened tacitly around the throne . n 2007 there was a discussion about the maintenance costs of De Groene Draeck . In August of that year they always appeared to have been charged to the Ministry of Defense . In 2005 and 2006, these costs amounted to € 416,000. A new comparable ship costs € 800,000 to € 2,500,000 and maintenance is normally 50,000 to 70,000 euros per year. At the beginning of September 2007, the Ministry of Defense announced that it will continue to maintain and operate this ship, because this was promised when the national gift was offered.
On 11 May 2010, it was announced that Queen Beatrix would still pay a large part of the maintenance itself. She paid the extra maintenance for two years. The costs were estimated at € 326,000.
Following questions from MP Pechtold , Prime Minister Rutte reported at the end of September 2015 that from 2010 to 2015, € 223,000 more was spent on maintenance than expected. And moreover that for the coming years the budgeted € 51,000 per year will not be spent, but € 95,000
RTL Nieuws revealed in February 2016 that the maintenance costs for years stood for around 50,000 euros in the annual financial reports, but that in reality the costs were more than double each year. Prime Minister Rutte would have structurally incorrectly informed the House of Representatives about this.
Monday, April 2, 2018
The Yokosuka K5Y was a two-seat unequal-span biplane trainer (Allied reporting name: "Willow") that served in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Due to its bright orange paint scheme (applied to all Japanese military trainers for visibility), it earned the nickname "aka-tombo", or "red dragonfly", after a type of insect common throughout Japan.
A K5Y of the Kamikaze Special Attack Corps 3rd Ryuko Squadron was credited with sinking the destroyer USS Callaghan on July 29, 1945, the last US warship lost to kamikaze attack during the war.
The aircraft was based on the Yokosuka Navy Type 91 Intermediate Trainer, but stability problems led to a redesign by Kawanishi in 1933. It entered service in 1934 as Navy Type 93 Intermediate Trainer K5Y1 with fixed tail-skid landing gear, and remained in use throughout the war. Floatplane types K5Y2 and K5Y3 were also produced. After the initial 60 examples by Kawanishi, production was continued by Watanabe (556 aircraft built), Mitsubishi (60), Hitachi (1,393), First Naval Air Technical Arsenal (75), Nakajima (24), Nippon (2,733), and Fuji (896), for a total of 5,770. These aircraft were the mainstay of Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service's flight training, and as intermediate trainers, they were capable of performing demanding aerobatic maneuvers. Two further land-based versions, the K5Y4 with a 358 kW (480 hp) Amakaze 21A engine and the K5Y5 with a 384 kW (515 hp) Amakaze 15, were projected but never built.
Indonesian People's Security Force (the precursor of Indonesian Air Force) operated derelict aircraft against Dutch colonial rule. On July 29 1947, Indonesia using 2 units of Yokosuka K5Y (Called "Cureng/Churen" by Indonesian fighters) with one "Guntei Bomber" (Mitsubishi Ki-51 from Maguwo Air Force Base, Yogyakarta for bombing Dutch strategic positions in Ambarawa, Salatiga and Semarang. On its original plan, Nakajima Ki-43 "Hayabusa" also planned to be involved too in this operation, but cancelled as the aircraft suffered technical difficulties. It is currently on display at Jakarta.
Sunday, April 1, 2018
Thursday, March 29, 2018
The one problem I found with the Arsenal kit is that it was more in line with the HAL 9000 face plate from 2010 odyssey 2 including the label. I want the one from 2001.
So using the extensive information provided by AP 333 on the RPF web site I was able to recreate a HAL 9000 more in keeping with 2001. It's not perfect due to the confines of the kit, but it's close.
The stand I got from the Revell Fock Wulf 190 kit. I also installed a cheap sound card as well, but as can be expected if you buy a cheap sound card the sound you get back is not very good.
HAL 9000 is a fictional character and the main antagonist in Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series. First appearing in 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a sentient computer (or artificial general intelligence) that controls the systems of the Discovery One spacecraft and interacts with the ship's astronaut crew. Part of HAL's hardware is shown towards the end of the film, but he is mostly depicted as a camera lens containing a red or yellow dot, instances of which are located throughout the ship. HAL 9000 is voiced by Douglas Rain in the two feature film adaptations of the Space Odyssey series. HAL speaks in a soft, calm voice and a conversational manner, in contrast to the crewmen, David Bowman and Frank Poole.
In the film 2001, HAL became operational on 12 January 1992 at the HAL Laboratories in Urbana, Illinois as production number 3. The activation year was 1991 in earlier screenplays and changed to 1997 in Clarke's novel written in conjunction with the movie. In addition to maintaining the Discovery One spacecraft systems during the interplanetary mission to Jupiter (or Saturn in the original novel, published shortly after the release of the film), HAL is capable of speech, speech recognition, facial recognition, natural language processing, lip reading, art appreciation, interpreting emotional behaviours, automated reasoning, and playing chess.
HAL became operational in Urbana, Illinois, at the HAL Plant (the University of Illinois' Coordinated Science Laboratory, where the ILLIAC computers were built). The film says this occurred in 1992, while the book gives 1997 as HAL's birth year.
In 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL is initially considered a dependable member of the crew, maintaining ship functions and engaging genially with its human crew-mates on an equal footing. As a recreational activity, Frank Poole plays against HAL in a game of chess. In the film the artificial intelligence is shown to triumph easily. However, as time progresses, HAL begins to malfunction in subtle ways and, as a result, the decision is made to shut down HAL in order to prevent more serious malfunctions. The sequence of events and manner in which HAL is shut down differs between the novel and film versions of the story. In the aforementioned game of chess HAL makes minor and undetected mistakes in his analysis, a possible foreshadowing to HAL's malfunctioning.
In the film, astronauts David Bowman and Frank Poole consider disconnecting HAL's cognitive circuits when he appears to be mistaken in reporting the presence of a fault in the spacecraft's communications antenna. They attempt to conceal what they are saying, but are unaware that HAL can read their lips. Faced with the prospect of disconnection, HAL decides to kill the astronauts in order to protect and continue its programmed directives, and to conceal its malfunction from Earth. HAL uses one of the Discovery's EVA pods to kill Poole while he is repairing the ship. When Bowman uses another pod to attempt to rescue Poole, HAL locks him out of the ship, then disconnects the life support systems of the other hibernating crew members. Bowman circumvents HAL's control, entering the ship by manually opening an emergency airlock with his service pod's clamps, detaching the pod door via its explosive bolts. Bowman jumps across empty space, reenters Discovery, and quickly re-pressurizes the airlock.
The novel explains that HAL is unable to resolve a conflict between his general mission to relay information accurately, and orders specific to the mission requiring that he withhold from Bowman and Poole the true purpose of the mission. (This withholding is considered essential after the findings of a psychological experiment, "Project Barsoom", where humans were made to believe that there had been alien contact. In every person tested, a deep-seated xenophobia was revealed, which was unknowingly replicated in HAL's constructed personality. Mission Control did not want the crew of Discovery to have their thinking compromised by the knowledge that alien contact was already real.) With the crew dead, HAL reasons, he would not need to lie to them.
In the novel, the orders to disconnect HAL come from Dave and Frank's superiors on Earth. After Frank is killed while attempting to repair the communications antenna he is pulled away into deep space using the safety tether which is still attached to both the pod and Frank Poole's spacesuit. Dave begins to revive his hibernating crew mates, but is foiled when HAL vents the ship's atmosphere into the vacuum of space, killing the awakening crew members and almost killing Bowman, who is only narrowly saved when he finds his way to an emergency chamber which has its own oxygen supply and a spare space suit inside.
In both versions, Bowman then proceeds to shut down the machine. In the film, HAL's central core is depicted as a crawlspace full of brightly lit computer modules mounted in arrays from which they can be inserted or removed. Bowman shuts down HAL by removing modules from service one by one; as he does so, HAL's consciousness degrades. HAL reverts to material that was programmed into him early in his memory, including announcing the date he became operational as 12 January 1992 (in the novel, 1997). When HAL's logic is completely gone, he begins singing the song "Daisy Bell" (in actuality, the first song sung by a computer). HAL's final act of any significance is to prematurely play a prerecorded message from Mission Control which reveals the true reasons for the mission to Jupiter.
Clarke noted that the film 2001 was criticized for not having any characters, except for HAL and that a great deal of the establishing story on Earth was cut from the film (and even from Clarke's novel). Early drafts of Clarke's story called the computer Socrates (a preferred name to Autonomous Mobile Explorer–5), with another draft giving the computer a female personality called Athena. This name was later used in Clarke and Stephen Baxter's A Time Odyssey novel series.
The earliest draft depicted Socrates as a roughly humanoid robot, and is introduced as overseeing Project Morpheus, which studied prolonged hibernation in preparation for long term space flight. As a demonstration to Senator Floyd, Socrates' designer, Dr. Bruno Forster, asks Socrates to turn off the oxygen to hibernating subjects Kaminski and Whitehead, which Socrates refuses, citing Asimov's First Law of Robotics.
In a later version, in which Bowman and Whitehead are the non-hibernating crew of Discovery, Whitehead dies outside the spacecraft after his pod collides with the main antenna, tearing it free. This triggers the need for Bowman to revive Poole, but the revival does not go according to plan, and after briefly awakening, Poole dies. The computer, now named Athena, announces "All systems of Poole now No–Go. It will be necessary to replace him with a spare unit." After this, Bowman decides to go out in a pod and retrieve the antenna, which is moving away from the ship. Athena refuses to allow him to leave the ship, citing "Directive 15" which prevents it from being left unattended, forcing him to make program modifications during which time the antenna drifts further.
During rehearsals Kubrick asked Stefanie Powers to supply the voice of HAL 9000 while searching for a suitably androgynous voice so the actors had something to react to. On the set, British actor Nigel Davenport played HAL. When it came to dubbing HAL in post-production, Kubrick had originally cast Martin Balsam, but as he felt Balsam "just sounded a little bit too colloquially American", he was replaced with Douglas Rain, who "had the kind of bland mid-Atlantic accent we felt was right for the part." Rain was only handed HAL's lines instead of the full script, and recorded them across a day and a half.
HAL's point of view shots were created with a Cinerama 160-degree Fairchild-Curtis wide-angle lens. This lens is about 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter, while HAL's prop eye lens is about 3 inches (7.6 cm) in diameter. Stanley Kubrick chose to use the large Fairchild-Curtis lens to shoot the HAL 9000 POV shots because he needed a wide-angle fisheye lens that would fit onto his shooting camera, and this was the only lens at the time that would work. The HAL 9000 face plate, without lens, was discovered in a junk shop in Paddington, London, in the early 1970s by Chris Randall. Research revealed that the original lens was a Nikon Nikkor 8mm F8. This was found along with the key to HAL's Brain Room. Both items were purchased for ten shillings (£0.50). The collection was sold at a Christies auction in 2010 for £17,500 to film director Peter Jackson.
HAL's name, according to writer Arthur C. Clarke, is derived from Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer. After the film was released fans noticed HAL was a one-letter shift from the name IBM and there has been much speculation since that this was a dig at the large computer company, something that has been denied by both Clarke and 2001 director Stanley Kubrick. Clarke addressed the issue in his book The Lost Worlds of 2001:
...about once a week some character spots the fact that HAL is one letter ahead of IBM, and promptly assumes that Stanley and I were taking a crack at the estimable institution ... As it happened, IBM had given us a good deal of help, so we were quite embarrassed by this, and would have changed the name had we spotted the coincidence.IBM was consulted during the making of the film and their logo can be seen on props in the film including Pan Am Clipper's cockpit instrument panel and on the lower arm keypad on Poole's space suit. During production it was brought to IBM's attention that the film's plot included a homicidal computer but they approved association with the film if it was clear any "equipment failure" was not related to their products.
The scene in which HAL's consciousness degrades was inspired by Clarke's memory of a speech synthesis demonstration by physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr., who used an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer vocoder recreated the song "Daisy Bell", with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews.
HAL's capabilities, like all the technology in 2001, were based on the speculation of respected scientists. Marvin Minsky, director of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and one of the most influential researchers in the field, was an adviser on the film set. In the mid-1960s, many computer scientists in the field of artificial intelligence were optimistic that machines with HAL's capabilities would exist within a few decades. For example, AI pioneer Herbert A. Simon at Carnegie Mellon University, had predicted in 1965 that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do", the overarching premise being that the issue was one of computational speed (which was predicted to increase) rather than principle.
HAL is listed as the 13th-greatest film villain in the AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains.
The 9000th of the asteroids in the asteroid belt, 9000 Hal discovered on May 3, 1981 by E. Bowell, at Anderson Mesa Station, is named after HAL 9000.
HAL was featured in a guest role in the game LEGO Dimensions, where he is summoned by the player in the Portal 2 level to distract GLaDOS.
Thursday, March 22, 2018
Just doing some more experiments with dark backgrounds. I find them to be more difficult to work with than white backgrounds but they give a warmer feel to the pictures I think.
The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter introduced on the Western Front in 1917. Manufactured by Sopwith Aviation Company, it had a short-coupled fuselage, heavy, powerful rotary engine, and concentrated fire from twin synchronized machine guns. Though difficult to handle, to an experienced pilot it provided unmatched manoeuvrability. A superlative fighter, the Camel was credited with shooting down 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter of the war. It also served as a ground-attack aircraft, especially near the end of the conflict, when it was outclassed in the air-to-air role by newer fighters.
ntended as a replacement for the Sopwith Pup, the Camel prototype was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands on 22 December 1916, powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z. Known as the "Big Pup" early on in its development, the biplane design was structurally conventional for its time, featuring a box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood-covered panels around the cockpit, and fabric-covered fuselage, wings and tail. For the first time on an operational British-designed fighter, two .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, firing forward through the propeller disc with synchronisation gear. A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, created a "hump" that led to the name Camel. The bottom wing was rigged with 3° dihedral but the top wing had no dihedral, so that the gap between the wings was less at the tips than at the roots. This was done at the suggestion of Fred Sigrist, the Sopwith works manager, in order to simplify construction. Approximately 5,490 Camels were built.
Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane, the Camel was generally considered difficult to fly. The type owed its extreme manoeuvrability and its difficult handling to the close placement of the engine, pilot, guns and fuel tank (some 90% of the weight of the aircraft) within the front seven feet of the aircraft, coupled with the strong gyroscopic effect of the rotary engine. The Camel soon gained an unfortunate reputation with student pilots. The Clerget engine was particularly sensitive to fuel mixture control and incorrect settings often caused the engine to choke and cut out during take-off. Many crashed due to mishandling on take-off when a full fuel tank affected the centre of gravity. In level flight, the Camel was markedly tail-heavy. Unlike the Sopwith Triplane, the Camel lacked a variable incidence tailplane, so that the pilot had to apply constant forward pressure on the control stick to maintain a level attitude at low altitude. The aircraft could also be rigged so that at higher altitudes it was able to be flown "hands off." A stall immediately resulted in a particularly dangerous spin.
The type entered squadron service in June 1917 with No. 4 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service, near Dunkirk. The following month, it became operational with No. 70 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps. By February 1918, 13 squadrons were fully equipped with the Camel.
The Camel proved to have a good margin of superiority over the Albatros D.III and D.V and offered heavier armament and better performance than the Pup and Triplane. In the hands of an experienced pilot, its manoeuvrability was unmatched by any contemporary type. Its controls were light and sensitive. The Camel turned rather slowly to the left, which resulted in a nose up attitude due to the torque of the rotary engine. But the engine torque also resulted in the ability to turn to the right in half the time of other fighters, although that resulted in more of a tendency towards a nose down attitude from the turn. Because of the faster turning capability to the right, to change heading 90° to the left, many pilots preferred to do it by turning 270° to the right.
Agility in combat made the Camel one of the best-remembered Allied aircraft of the First World War. RFC crew used to joke that it offered the choice between "a wooden cross, the Red Cross, or a Victoria Cross" Together with the S.E.5a and the SPAD S.XIII, the Camel helped to establish the Allied aerial superiority that lasted well into 1918.
Major William Barker's Sopwith Camel (serial no. B6313, the aircraft in which he scored the majority of his victories,) became the most successful fighter aircraft in the history of the RAF, shooting down 46 aircraft and balloons from September 1917 to September 1918 in 404 operational hours flying. It was dismantled in October 1918. Barker kept the dashboard watch as a memento, but was asked to return it the following day.
An important role for the Camel was home defence. The RNAS flew a number of Camels from Eastchurch and Manston airfields against daylight raids by German Gotha bombers from July 1917. The public outcry against these raids and the poor response of London's defences resulted in the RFC diverting Camel deliveries from France to home defence, with 44 Squadron RFC reforming on the Camel in the home defence role in July 1917. When the Germans switched to night attacks, the Camel proved capable of being safely flown at night, and the home defence aircraft were modified with navigation lights to serve as night fighters. A number of Camels were more extensively modified as night fighters, with the Vickers machine guns being replaced by overwing Lewis guns, with the cockpit being moved rearwards so the pilot could easily reload the guns. This modification, which became known as the "Sopwith Comic" allowed the guns to be fired without affecting the night vision of the pilots, and allowed the use of new and more effective incendiary ammunition that was considered unsafe to fire from synchronised Vickers guns. By March 1918, the home defence squadrons were equipped with the Camel, with seven home defence squadrons flying Camels by August 1918. Camels were also used as night fighters over the Western Front, with 151 Squadron intercepting German night raids over the front, and carrying out night intruder missions against German airstrips, claiming 26 German aircraft shot down in five months of operations.
By mid-1918, the Camel was becoming limited, especially as a day fighter, by its slow speed and comparatively poor performance at altitudes over 12,000 ft (3,650 m). However, it remained useful as a ground-attack and infantry support aircraft. During the German offensive of March 1918, flights of Camels harassed the advancing German Army, inflicting high losses (and suffering high losses in turn) through the dropping of 25 lb (11 kg) Cooper bombs and ultra-low-level strafing. The protracted development of the Camel's replacement, the Sopwith Snipe, meant that the Camel remained in service until the Armistice.
In summer 1918, a 2F.1 Camel (N6814) was used in trials as a parasite fighter under Airship R23
Wednesday, March 14, 2018
The United States Spacecraft Discovery One was a nuclear-powered interplanetary fictional spaceship controlled by the AI onboard computer HAL 9000 from the first two novels of the Space Odyssey series and the movies 2001: A Space Odyssey and 2010: The Year We Make Contact.
This spaceship is founded on solidly conceived, yet unrealized science. One major concession in its appearance, for the purpose of reducing confusion, was to eliminate the huge cooling "wings" which would be needed to radiate the heat produced by its hypothetical thermonuclear propulsion system. The movie's producer/director Stanley Kubrick thought that the audience might interpret the wings as meaning that the spacecraft was intended to fly through an atmosphere.
The Discovery One was named after Captain Robert Scott's sailing ship RRS Discovery, which was launched in 1901. Writer Arthur C. Clarke used to visit this ship when it was moored in London. It shares its name with a real spacecraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (OV-103).
In the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, the Discovery One is described as being about 460 feet (140 meters) long (the 2010 movie mentions 800 feet) and powered by a nuclear plasma drive, separated by 275 feet (84 m) of tankage and structure, from the spherical part of the spaceship where the crew quarters, the computer, flight controls, small auxiliary craft, and instrumentation are located. In the crew's centrifuge, the crewmen would have enjoyed Moon-like gravitational conditions. This would be where they spend most of their time, and where the three hibernating astronauts rested in their compartments. The piloting, navigation, and other occasional tasks could take place in the zero-gravity command module.
Other sections of the crewmen's sphere would include the pod bay, where three one-man repair and inspection craft would be kept, and the spaceship's primary HAL 9000 mainframe computer with its level-upon-level of memory storage and digital processing units. Because of the lack of aerodynamic design and its immense size, the Discovery One would be assembled in and launched from orbit. As described in the novel, the Discovery One was originally intended to survey the Jovian system, but its mission was changed to go to Saturn and investigate the destination of the signal from the black monolith at the crater Tycho. As a result, the mission became a one-way trip to Saturn and its moon Iapetus. After investigating alien artifacts at Saturn and Iapetus, the preliminary plan is for all five members of the crew to enter suspended animation for an indefinite period of time. Eventually, it was hoped that a much larger and more powerful Discovery Two would be built that could make it to Iapetus and return with everyone in hibernation.
The ship's centrifuge was a spinning band of deck, mounted inside the crew compartment, that used centrifugal force to simulate the effects of gravity. It was the primary living and work area, featuring consoles, panels, screens, and devices. In the movie, there was Earth gravity in the centrifuge. All other points on the ship, including the command bridge, were micro-g environments where the crew members used Velcro shoes to attach themselves to the floor. There was an automated kitchen developed with the assistance of General Mills; a ship-to-Earth communications center; and a complete medical section where the astronauts underwent regular automated checkups with results and any diagnosis of deficiencies dislayed directly on a readout screen.
The Discovery is described as a very large ship that could be handled by only two astronauts (David Bowman and Frank Poole), along with the HAL 9000. In the book IBM predicted that computer development would have advanced to such an extent that the mission could be undertaken with all the astronauts placed in hibernation. It was said to be desired, however, that regular communications be maintained throughout the voyage between the pilot and copilot and mission control back on Earth. During communication, account was taken of the elapsed time for electromagnetic waves crossing space between the spaceship and the Earth. For example, Poole is depicted watching a prerecorded birthday message from his family, rather than interacting with them in real time. Such a conversation is not possible because messages take over 30 minutes to transmit between Jupiter and Earth. Naturally, this time would depend on the relative positions of the bodies in the Solar System at any given moment.
After the malfunction of HAL, Bowman deactivated the computer, thus effectively isolating himself on board the Discovery. In the movie, when the spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, it encounters TMA-1's considerably larger 'Big Brother', 'TMA-2', at the Jupiter/Io L1 point. The novel is basically the same with Discovery in orbit around Saturn's moon Iapetus instead. In both versions Bowman leaves Discovery to examine the monolith and is taken inside it.
The novel and movie 2010: Odyssey Two follows the 2001: A Space Odyssey movie ending rather than the novel.
After finding out that Discovery's orbit is failing, a joint Soviet-US mission (including Heywood Floyd) travels to Jupiter aboard the spacecraft Alexei Leonov to intercept and board Discovery believing that it harbours many of the answers to the mysteries surrounding the 2001 mission. Leonov docks with Discovery, reactivates the on-board systems, and stabilizes its orbit. Hal's creator, Dr. Chandra, is sent to reactivate the HAL 9000 computer and gather any data he can regarding the previous mission.
Later on, an apparition of Dave Bowman appears, warning Floyd that Leonov must leave Jupiter within two days. Floyd asks what will happen at that time, and Bowman replies, 'Something wonderful'. Floyd has difficulty convincing the rest of the crew, at first, but a dark spot on Jupiter begins to form and starts growing. HAL's telescope reveals that the “Great Black Spot” is in fact a vast population of monoliths increasing at a geometric rate. (The film accelerates the pace from the novel, both shortening Bowman's deadline from fifteen days, and making the spot grow faster.)
Initially it was planned to inject Discovery on an Earth-bound trajectory (though it would not arrive for some years); however, when faced with Bowman's warning, the Leonov crew devises a plan to use Discovery as a 'booster rocket', enabling them to return to Earth ahead of schedule, but leaving Discovery in a elliptical orbit of Jupiter. The crew worries that Hal will have the same neuroses on discovering that he will be abandoned, and Chandra convinces HAL that the human crew is in danger and must leave.
After detaching itself from Discovery, Leonov makes a hasty exit from the Jupiter system, just in time to witness the Monoliths engulf Jupiter. Through a mechanism that the novel only partially explains, these monoliths increase Jupiter's density until the planet achieves nuclear fusion, becoming a small star.
As Leonov leaves Jupiter, Bowman instructs HAL to begin repeatedly broadcasting the message:
ALL THESE WORLDS ARE YOURS EXCEPT EUROPA. ATTEMPT NO LANDINGS THERE.The movie version, as part of its heightened Cold War emphasis, adds the words:
USE THEM TOGETHER. USE THEM IN PEACE.The new star, which Earth eventually dubs "Lucifer", destroys Discovery. HAL is transformed into the same kind of entity as David Bowman and becomes Bowman's companion.